Against Lying

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The Law of Lying: Perjury, False Statements, and Obstruction

Sun Tzu declared that "All warfare is based on deception. It is asserted that the capacity to lie is a talent human beings possess universally. The evolutionary theory proposed by Darwin states that only the fittest will survive and by lying, we aim to improve other's perception of our social image and status, capability, and desirability in general.

Although men and women lie at equal frequencies, men are more likely to lie in order to please themselves while women are more likely to lie to please others.

How to Tell When Someone Is Lying

Those with Parkinson's disease show difficulties in deceiving others, difficulties that link to prefrontal hypometabolism. This suggests a link between the capacity for dishonesty and integrity of prefrontal functioning.

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Pseudologia fantastica is a term applied by psychiatrists to the behavior of habitual or compulsive lying. Mythomania is the condition where there is an excessive or abnormal propensity for lying and exaggerating. A recent study found that composing a lie takes longer than telling the truth. Some people believe that they are convincing liars, however in many cases, they are not.

Various passages of the Bible feature exchanges that assert lying is immoral and wrong Prov. Other passages feature descriptive not prescriptive exchanges where lying was committed in extreme circumstances involving life and death, however, most Christian philosophers would argue that lying is never acceptable, but that even those who are righteous in God's eyes sin sometimes.

Old Testament accounts of lying include: [61]. In the Day of Judgement, unrepentant liars will be punished in the lake of fire. From his text, it can be derived that St. Augustine divided lies into eight categories, listed in order of descending severity:.

Despite distinguishing between lies according to their external severity, Augustine maintains in both treatises that all lies, defined precisely as the external communication of what one does not hold to be internally true, are categorically sinful and therefore, ethically impermissible. Augustine wrote that lies told in jest, or by someone who believes or opines the lie to be true are not, in fact, lies. The fourth of the five Buddhist precepts involves falsehood spoken or committed to by action.

The fourth precept includes avoidance of lying and harmful speech. Zoroaster teaches that there are two powers in the universe; Asha , which is truth, order, and that which is real, and Druj , which is "the Lie". Later on, the Lie became personified as Angra Mainyu , a figure similar to the Christian Devil , who was portrayed as the eternal opponent of Ahura Mazda God.

Is Lying Ever Justifiable?

Herodotus , in his mid-fifth-century BC account of Persian residents of the Pontus , reports that Persian youths, from their fifth year to their twentieth year, were instructed in three things — "to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the Truth". In Achaemenid Persia , the lie, drauga in Avestan: druj , is considered to be a cardinal sin and it was punishable by death in some extreme cases.

Tablets discovered by archaeologists in the s [81] at the site of Persepolis give us adequate evidence about the love and veneration for the culture of truth during the Achaemenian period. These tablets contain the names of ordinary Persians, mainly traders and warehouse-keepers. It was Darius the Great who laid down the "ordinance of good regulations" during his reign.

Darius' testimony about his constant battle against the Lie is found in the Behistun Inscription. He testifies: [84] "I was not a lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak or to the powerful did I do wrong.

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The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; who so did injury, him I punished well. He asks Ahuramazda , God, to protect the country from "a hostile army, from famine, from the Lie". Darius had his hands full dealing with large-scale rebellion which broke out throughout the empire. After fighting successfully with nine traitors in a year, Darius records his battles against them for posterity and tells us how it was the Lie that made them rebel against the empire. At the Behistun inscription, Darius says:.

Then advice to his son Xerxes , who is to succeed him as the great king:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lie disambiguation. For other uses, see Liar disambiguation and White lie disambiguation. Main article: Lie detection. Oxford University Press. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. International Journal of Applied Philosophy. The Oxford Handbook of Lying. Retrieved Scott October Retrieved 8 August Legal and Criminology Psychology. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. Developmental Science. Princeton, N.

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Patterns for College Writing 11th ed. Spring Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. The Face of Lies. Mother Jones. Close Encounters: Communication in Relationships 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Accessed 4 December June 1, March Bott; John Patrick; Michael B. Lewis April 3, Bibcode : PLoSO Accessed November 27, Archived from the original on Sagarin, Kelton v. Rhoads, Robert B. Commonweal Magazine : Retrieved 7 July Ohio Department of Natural Resources. December 29, Retrieved January 3, Shelton tr.

Cervantes' Don Quixote ii.

Love and warre are all one. It is lawfull to use sleights and stratagems to attaine the wished end. Psychology Today. The neurobiological basis of deceptive behaviour". Predictive validity of the perceived ability to deceive PATD scale". Personality and Individual Differences. Deferrari, Roy J.

Treatises on various subjects. Translated by Mary Sarah Muldowney 1st pbk.

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Augustin: On the Holy Trinity. Doctrinal treatises. Moral treatises. The Christian Literature Company. Augustine ". Retrieved 30 December Brian; Clarke, Benjamin Responding to terrorism: political, philosophical and legal perspectives [Online-Ausg. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. Archived PDF from the original on 8 August In Segall, Seth Robert ed. State University of New York Press. In Powers, John ed. The Buddhist World. A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. Advances in Developing Human Resources. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Archived PDF from the original on 19 August The Histories. Translated by George Rawlinson. Seals on the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Volume 1. Chicago: Online Oriental Institute Publications.

Thomas L. Carson

Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 9 January Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 1 November Archived from the original on 5 May Liege: Brill. Companino Encyclopedia of Asian philosophy. Upon this country may there not come an army, nor famine, nor the Lie; this I pray as a boon from Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house. This boon may Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house give to me!

From Kent, Roland G. Old Persian: Grammar, texts, lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society.